In simple terms, the biggest difference between a quantum computer and a traditional computer is quantum. Chinese Academy of Sciences is explained:

Traditional computing using the rules of the operation is binary, with 0 and 1 record information status, each step can do only 2 of the first party - 2 operations. Quantum computers describe information from quantum states, and they have faster computations. For example, two quantum states (also called "2 bits") of the quantum computer, each step can be done 2 of the second power - that is, 4 operations. 3 bits of the quantum computer, each step can be done on the information 3 times - 8 times the calculation.

This is the quantum stack, can also be in two states of the quantum can be parallel to deal with two issues, equivalent to the left hand and right hand at the same time can write homework, and for each additional quantum, this ability to continue to double.

"Schrodinger's Cat" describes an ideal experiment of quantum mechanics: the cat is a cat and poison device, the particles in the poison device will decay and release the gas, and the cat will die after inhaling the gas. According to the principle of quantum mechanics, but before opening the box observation, the cat will always exist at the same time death and live superimposed state.

This also leads to the quantum instability of the observation, as long as the box is opened, the cat's state collapses into one, either dead, or either, but you do not know when the collapse is taking place. Quantum with the cat almost, and then you see the truth before it is a variety of state superposition, once involved in observation, it will collapse into a fixed state.

The superposition of the state is amazing, but this is only the first step, quantum computer in the realization of quantum superposition after the realization of quantum entanglement, that is, the interaction between the quantum, the concept is more amazing, Einstein once called it is strange Spooky action at a distance.

Entanglement of the word is very imaginative, whether for humans or quantum, "entanglement" with a magical power. For example, although you have and former boyfriend broke up, he was able to continue to send text messages to make you upset.

Quantum entanglement strength is more weird, it does not even need to call, SMS or any communication medium. If the distance between the two particles is close enough, they will be entangled together, even if the two particles separated, and then far, each day, they will remain entangled in the state. And as long as the two particles entangled, even if there is no mobile phone, mail, and any means of communication, as long as you measure a particle, the other side of the particle state will be affected.

Entanglement is a necessary step to achieve quantum computation, but because quantum uncertainty is difficult to achieve. In addition, the superconductor operation requires very low temperature, even if the theoretical problem is solved, can not accept the following zero to play the computer can not be achieved so that quantum computers into the tens of thousands of households. For this, IBM's solution is to place the superconducting circuit in a large refrigerator below zero, and then share the five quantum bits of the computer in the form of a platform.

Said so much, but in fact still do not have a practical quantum computer, and scalability programmability has yet to be resolved. But said that if the quantum computer can really plan to develop, first from the algorithm, for the programmers is the first hit.